Guideline about Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common non-infectious chronic disease. It affects both men and women, most often over the age of 40. The danger of type 2 diabetes is underestimated. Some patients, in fact, are simply not informed that they are predisposed to this disease. Those of the patients who are aware of their pathology, often do not know what it exactly means. As a result, type 2 diabetes can take severe forms and result in life-threatening conditions. Meanwhile, adequate treatment and proper nutrition in diabetes mellitus can stop the disease progression.

Causes

When diabetes occurs in humans, the causes of this fact can be varied. The second type of disease often leads to:

  • improper diet;
  • lack of physical activity;
  • excess weight;
  • heredity;
  • stress;
  • self-medication with drugs such as glucocorticosteroids.

In fact, often, there is not one prerequisite, but a whole complex of reasons.Diabetes

Symptoms

Symptoms largely depend on the disease stage. In the first stages, the patient may not feel serious discomfort, with the exception of increased fatigue, dry mouth, increased thirst and appetite. This condition is usually attributed to the wrong diet, chronic fatigue syndrome, stress. However, in fact, the cause is hidden pathology. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include:

  • poor wound healing;
  • a weakening of immunity;
  • pain and swelling in the limbs;
  • headaches;
  • dermatitis.

However, patients often do not interpret correctly even a set of similar symptoms, and diabetes develops unimpeded until it reaches incurable stages or results in life-threatening conditions.

Treatment

In fact, there are no sufficiently effective methods that increase the digestibility of glucose by cells, so the main focus of treatment is on reducing the concentration of sugar in the blood. In addition, efforts should be taken to reduce the patient’s excess weight, bring him back to normal, since the abundance of adipose tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

The main factor affecting the likelihood of developing complications in type 2 diabetes is a violation of lipid metabolism. An excess of cholesterol that differs from the norm can result in the development of angiopathies.

Treatment methods

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that requires long-term and persistent therapy. In fact, all the methods used are divided into three groups:

  • taking drugs;
  • diet;
  • lifestyle change.

Effective treatment involves not only diabetes mellitus itself but also co-morbidities such as:

  • obesity;
  • hypertension;
  • angiopathy;
  • neuropathy;
  • depression.

Type 2 diabetes is treated on an outpatient basis and at home. Only patients with hyperglycemic and hyperosmolar comas, ketoacidosis, severe forms of neuropathy and angiopathy, stroke are subject to hospitalization.

Drugs for diabetes

In fact, all medications are divided into two main groups – those that affect insulin production, and those that provide no effect. The main drug of the second group is metformin from the biguanide class. This drug is most often prescribed for type 2 diabetes. Without affecting the cells of the pancreas, it maintains glucose in the blood at the normal level. The drug does not face a critically low decline in glucose levels. Metformin also burns fat and reduces appetite, which leads to a decrease in the patient’s excess weight. However, an overdose of the drug can be dangerous, as it can be a serious pathological condition with a high percentage of mortality – lactic acidosis.

Typical representatives of another group of drugs that affect insulin production are sulfonylurea derivatives. They directly stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas, causing them to produce insulin in increased amounts. However, an overdose of these drugs threatens the patient with a hyperglycemic crisis. Sulfonylurea derivatives are usually taken together with metformin.

There are other types of drugs. The class of drugs that enhance insulin production, depending on the concentration of glucose, are incretin mimetic and DPP-4 inhibitors (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor). These are new drugs, and so far they are quite expensive. They inhibit the synthesis of sugar-enhancing hormone – glucagon, increase the action of incretins – the gastrointestinal hormones, which increase insulin production.

There is also a drug that prevents the absorption of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract – acarbose. This remedy does not affect insulin production. Acarbose is often prescribed for prophylactic purposes to prevent diabetes.

There are also medical agents that increase the excretion of glucose in the urine, and agents that increase the sensitivity of cells to glucose.

Medical insulin is rarely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Most often it is used with the ineffectiveness of therapy with other drugsю It is a decompensated form of diabetes when the pancreas is disordered which result in non-production of enough insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is also accompanied by concomitant diseases:

  • angiopathies;
  • depression;
  • neuropathy;
  • hypertension;
  • lipid metabolism disorders.

If similar diseases are found, then drugs are prescribed for their treatment.

How to monitor blood glucose concentration?

The essence of diabetes therapy is self-control on the part of the patient. In type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar should reach the normal range or close to it. Therefore, the patient needs to control the sugar level independently in order to avoid its critical rates.

For this, it is advisable to have a diary in which the values of glucose concentration in the blood will be recorded. Measurement of glucose can be done with special portable devices, blood glucose meters, equipped with test strips. The measurement procedure is desirable to perform every day. The best time to measure is early morning.

If possible, the procedure can be repeated several times a day and determine the level of sugar not only in the morning on an empty stomach but also after eating, before bedtime, etc. Knowing the schedule of changes in blood glucose, the patient will be able to quickly adjust the diet and lifestyle, so that the glucose indicator would be in a normal state.

However, the presence of a glucometer does not relieve the patient of the need to regularly check blood for the level of sugar in the outpatient clinic, since the values obtained in the laboratory have higher accuracy.

It is not so difficult to control the rate of sugar in the consumption of food. After all, most of the products bought in the store indicate their energy value and the number of carbohydrates they contain. There are diabetic analogs of conventional foods in which carbohydrates are replaced with low-calorie sweeteners (sorbitol, xylitol, aspartame).

Prognosis

In severe cases, when diabetes mellitus type 2 reaches the stage of decompensation. As a rule, it is impossible to return the disease back and return glucose indicators to a normal state – due to the depletion of the pancreas and the body as a whole. Therefore, diabetes mellitus type 2 in this situation is an incurable disease. However, proper treatment of type 2 diabetes can prolong the patient’s life for many years. At the initial stage of diabetes mellitus type 2, it is possible to control the concentration of glucose in the blood and maintain it within acceptable limits only by changing diet and lifestyle, increasing physical activity. As a result, the patient can live for many decades and not face any complications of diabetes.

Category: Health and Wellness

Tags: diabetes, endocrine disorders, human health